Is This a Joke? FHA Loan Limits Set to Fall, Down Payments to Rise

By: Matt Dornic

Published: August 17, 2011

Batten down the hatches, because the U.S. housing market is headed straight into another storm. That’s because limits for Federal Housing Administration (FHA) loans are set to shrink significantly on Oct. 1, 2011, and the only people who can steer this ship to safety are off enjoying a long summer holiday.

Batten down the hatches, because the U.S. housing market is headed straight into another storm. That’s because limits for Federal Housing Administration (FHA) loans are set to shrink significantly on Oct. 1, 2011, and the only people who can steer this ship to safety are off enjoying a long summer holiday.

If you’re looking to purchase or refinance a home valued between $271,050 and $729,000, take note: You may be ineligible for an FHA-backed loan.

A little FHA background
Established during the Great Depression to help stabilize the market, the FHA loan program has long made home ownership an affordable reality for millions of Americans. The program backs mortgages for creditworthy buyers who don’t necessarily make the cut for a traditional bank loan. For example, FHA offers qualified home buyers financing with as little as a 3.5% down payment and credit score as low as 620. If you can put 10% down, your credit score can be as low as 500. In turn, borrowers who take an FHA-backed mortgage pay a premium of roughly 1% annually.

FHA currently provides loans for up to $729,750 in the nation’s most expensive real estate markets. But right now, when it’s needed most, the program is being limited.

It’s been widely reported that unless Congress intervenes before Sept. 30, 2011, loan limits for conforming mortgages (those that FHA, Fannie Mae, or Freddie Mac will back) will drop to $625,500 from $729,750 in the nation’s priciest real estate markets, such as San Francisco and New York.

But what the media has failed to highlight is the impact of the decreased conforming mortgage limit on regions that fall below the maximum loan ceiling. Few areas of the country will be spared: The limit decrease would affect 669 counties in 42 states and the territories.

The average national decline would be around $68,000. In some areas, it’ll shrink by only $1,000. But in Monterey, Calif., for instance, it’ll decrease by almost $250,000. FHA loans correspond to an area’s median home price, so the limits for FHA-backed loans vary regionally.

Making a tough housing market unnecessarily tougher
The NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF REALTORS® estimates that 59% of all owner-occupied housing will be ineligible for affordable FHA financing. If families can’t sell their homes and others can’t buy, how do you think that will affect your buying power? Or for that matter, your property value?

Adding insult to injury are proposed reforms to FHA standards. In an attempt to further limit the government’s role in the housing market, some lawmakers want to change the requirements for an FHA loan, moving the minimum down payment to 5% from 3.5%.

So let’s recap. Mortgage limits are being lowered as requirements for FHA loans are being raised. This must be Capitol Hill’s idea of a joke. How exactly will this help the housing market or America’s economy?

How do you think the change in loan limits would affect the housing market?


What Affects Credit Scores? 7 Misconceptions

By: Gwen Moran

Published: October 22, 2010

If you’re trying to raise your credit score to get a good rate for a refinance or HELOC, you might be surprised by what affects—or doesn’t affect—your score.

More money improves your credit score
False. Your level or sources of income don’t affect your credit score, although lenders may look at it when making loan decisions, according to the Fair Isaac Corp., the company that issues the commonly used FICO credit scores.

Ownership of several credit cards can hurt your credit score
Mostly false. Having many credit lines isn’t necessarily a bad thing, says credit expert Liz Weston, author of Your Credit Score. Multiple lines give you a favorable debt-to-available-credit ratio. But use them correctly: It’s best to keep any balances below 10% or 20% of the total credit line, she says. Anything more will affect the ratio of debt-to-available-credit, which can decrease your credit score.

Opening and closing credit lines can hurt your credit score
True. New credit applications can decrease your credit score, so be careful about applying for new credit cards or personal loans before applying for a HELOC, second mortgage, automobile loan, or other large line of credit.

Surprise: Closing existing credit lines may also hurt your credit score, since it’ll damage your debt-to-available-credit ratio. A good rule is not to make any credit changes in the months leading up to a major credit request, such as for a HELOC.

Consolidating credit lines will help your credit score
Mostly false. Although it may seem like a good idea to move all your balances to one card, that can actually hurt your credit score, since your debt-to-available-credit ratio will spike on that card, says Weston.

However, credit expert Harrine Freeman says such a slight decline isn’t necessarily a deal-breaker for a loan, especially if the card has a lower interest rate and will allow you to pay off the balance sooner. Your score will increase as soon as that ratio goes down.

Changing jobs can hurt your credit score
Partly true. Taking a new job or losing your job doesn’t affect your credit score. However, if you have a spotty employment history, lenders may hold that against you in making a loan. Dips in income may signal that it could be difficult to pay bills in a timely manner.

Co-signing for others can hurt your credit score
Partly true. Simply co-signing on a loan for someone else may not affect your score, but if that person is late on paying the loan, it’s likely to show up on your report, says Freeman. And that’s a nasty surprise if you didn’t know the person was late.

Judgments and liens aren’t considered in your credit score
False. If you’ve had a judgment or lien filed against you, it’s considered in your payment history, which represents 35% of your score.

Similarly, while most utility companies don’t report payment history to credit bureaus, your account will likely be reported if it is seriously delinquent and referred to a collection agency.

Additional details on how to manage your FICO score are available on the FICO site.

Gwen Moran is a freelance business and finance writer from the Jersey shore. She’s the co-author of The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Business Plans and writes frequently about real estate.

New Program to Help Home Owners Has Great Benefits, But Tough Rule

By: Dona DeZube

Published: June 21, 2011

If you’re having trouble making your mortgage payment, there are a billion reasons to check out the latest federal government mortgage assistance program. The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development’s Emergency Homeowners Loan Program, now running in 27 states and Puerto Rico, will dole out $1 billion in interest-free loans to about 30,000 home owners who are unemployed, under-employed, or suffering financially due to a medical crisis.

If you’re having trouble making your mortgage payment, there are a billion reasons to check out the latest federal government mortgage assistance program. The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development’s Emergency Homeowners Loan Program, now running in 27 states and Puerto Rico, will dole out $1 billion in interest-free loans to about 30,000 home owners who are unemployed, under-employed, or suffering financially due to a medical crisis.

It’s a federal program, so of course there’s paperwork. And you only have until July 22 to get it filled out and over to one of the counseling agencies helping to run the program. Call 855-346-3345 for information about participating agencies in your area.

You’ll know by Oct. 1 if you’ve been approved for EHLP because the money has to be obligated before the federal government’s fiscal year ends on Sept. 30th.

The toughest thing about the program may be the eligibility rules. If you want to be approved for EHLP, you can’t:

Have federal tax liens
Have past-due student loans (deferments and forbearance are OK)
Have more than one 60-day late mortgage payment in the past two years
Be in bankruptcy
Have family income of more than $75,000 or 120% of the area median income
Then there are things you must have to get into EHLP:

Be a minimum of three months late on your mortgage payment.
Income that’s at least 15% less than what you were earning in 2009.
The ability to make your full mortgage payment again in two years, because you’re likely to be working or have another source of income again by then.
That last requirement will be hard for HUD to prove; it’ll likely be up to an underwriter to decide who qualifies.

But if you can meet those requirements (as well as a bunch more that the credit counselors running the program will tell you about), EHLP is a sweet deal.

You have to agree to pay 31% of your family’s monthly income toward the mortgage payment (minimum payment is $150). The federal government loans you the money to pay the rest of your mortgage payment.

You can keep getting that subsidy for two years, or until you’ve borrowed $50,000.

The best part is that if you make your mortgage payments on time, the government forgives 20% of the EHLP loan every year. So in five years, your loan is completely forgiven.

If you think there’s even the slightest possibility you’d qualify for the program, you should go for it. You’ve got nothing to lose and a lot of mortgage payment help to gain.

What do you think of this program and its requirements? Do you think many home owners will be able to meet those stringent requirements — especially the student loan and tax lien rules — and do so within a month?


By: G. M. Filisko

Published: April 9, 2010

Knowing how to read your good-faith estimate can help you save money on your home loan.

When you apply for a mortgage, the lender has three days to give you a good-faith estimate of the fees and interest rate you’ll pay, as well as other loan terms. Here are five tips for using the new three-page form to your advantage.

1. Know which fees can increase and by how much
In the past, lenders provided an estimate of the costs involved in getting your home loan, and if those costs rose by the time you closed on your home, tough luck. The good-faith estimate shows some fees the lender can’t change, like the loan origination fee that you pay to get a certain interest rate (commonly called points) and transfer costs.

The form also lists the charges that can increase by up to 10%, like some title company fees and local government recording fees. The lender must cover any increase over that amount.

Finally, the good-faith estimate lists the fees that can change without any limit, such as daily interest charges.

2. Look for answers to basic loan questions
In the summary section, lenders explain your loan’s terms in simple language. Can your interest rate rise? If so, a lender must spell out how much the rate can jump and what your new payment would be if it does. Can the amount you owe the lender increase, even if you make your payments on time? If it can, a lender must show you the potential increase.

3. Evaluate the “tradeoffs” on a loan
In the new “tradeoff table,” you can ask lenders to provide details on the tradeoffs you can make in choosing among home loans. If you’d like the same loan with lower settlement charges, how will the interest rate change? If you’d like a lower interest rate, how much will your settlement charges increase?

4. Compare apples to apples with the shopping chart
Included on the good-faith estimate is space for you to list all the terms and fees for four different loans, so you can make side-by-side comparisons.

5. Know what’s missing from the good-faith estimate
The new form lacks some key information, such as how much you’ll reimburse the sellers for property taxes they’ve already paid on the home. It also doesn’t tell you the amount of money you’ll have to bring to the closing table. Some lenders have created supplemental forms providing that information. If yours hasn’t, ask for it.

More from HouseLogic
More on the new good-faith estimate form

Other web resources
The new U.S. Housing and Urban Development good-faith estimate

More on shopping for a loan

G.M. Filisko is an attorney and award-winning writer who has encountered many settlement statements that bore no resemblance to the lender’s good-faith estimate. A frequent contributor to many national publications including, REALTOR® Magazine, and the American Bar Association Journal, she specializes in real estate, business, personal finance, and legal topics.

Chrisha Mitchell,
Baird & Warner, Orland Park

It Pays to Support Responsible Homeownership

By: Dona DeZube

Helping others become homeowners protects your home’s value and builds stronger communities.

When people move from renting to owning a home, they’re more likely to vote, get involved in community groups, and care about their home’s appearance. The children of homeowners do 23% better in school, according to a 2001 study by Harvard’s Joint Center for Housing Studies. And a steady flow of first-time homebuyers makes it easier to sell your own starter home when you’re ready to move up to a larger property.

Make housing affordable
One way to make more people homeowners is to make housing more affordable. All U.S. homeowners benefit from policies like the mortgage interest tax deduction. Many use government-backed mortgage insurance to lower loan costs. A variety of public and private programs offer low-cost loans and downpayment assistance to help Americans become homeowners. Help prospective homeowners save a downpayment by donating to sites like EARN, a non-profit that uses donations to match funds saved by low-wage earners.

Reduce foreclosures and preserve home value
Foreclosure matters because it hurts all homeowners. In 2009, foreclosures will cause property values to decline an average of $7,200 for about 70 million homeowners, resulting in a $502 billion loss in home equity, the Center for Responsible Lending estimates. Each foreclosure within 1/8th of a mile of your home lowers your property value about 0.744 percent, CRL says.

“One of the sad lessons of the [recent past] is that we aren’t alone,” says Nicolas P. Retsinas, director of the JCHS. “It’s clear that if the family next door loses their home to foreclosure, my home’s value will go down. Therefore, I have a vested interest in ensuring that people become homeowners and that homeownership is sustained over time.”

One effective tool against foreclosure is educating homeowners before they buy. The Joint Center found that loan delinquencies fell 13% with homeownership counseling. People who go through pre-purchase and post-purchase counseling and learn about mortgages, family budgeting, and home maintenance are less apt to face foreclosure, says Michael Berti, senior homeownership specialist at the Rural Ulster Preservation Company in Kingston, N.Y.

Support groups that help homeowners
One way to do your part to help other homeowners is by donating your time or money to some of the many non-profits that promote responsible homeownership.

Habitat for Humanity partners with new homeowners to build affordable housing. Habitat homes aren’t free. Homeowners work hundreds of hours, get homeownership counseling, and make mortgage payments.

The United Way supports many local programs that build affordable housing, help families build financial assets, and teach financial management skills. If you donate to United Way, you can direct your contribution to those causes.

HomeownershipSF, in San Francisco, tries to intervene where people facing foreclosure have the resources to catch up on their loan. If “the home can’t be saved, we try to get a first-time homebuyer we’ve worked with into the home as quickly as possible to stabilize the neighborhood,” says Interim Director Christi Baker.

Government programs support homeownership
Supporting federal state, and local programs that help create homeowners is another way you can expand responsible and affordable homeownership.

The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and the Federal Housing Authority provide mortgage loan insurance or guarantees that let people buy homes with only a small downpayment and borrow at lower interest rates.

Government-sponsored groups Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, and government-run Ginnie Mae buy and securitize mortgage loans made by banks, freeing up money, so banks can keep lending.

Sites like Govtrack and RollCall help you stay on top of laws that affect homeowners.

HUD’s HOME program provides financial support to state and local housing authorities to build and renovate for-sale and rental housing for lower-income Americans.

In U.S. cities of all sizes, the HOPE VI program has funded plans to replace deteriorating public housing with new low-rise, mixed-income homes. These developments sell most homes at market rates, but designate a percentage for use by low-income homeowners.

How to get involved
You can support responsible homeownership in many ways. Retired construction contractors France and Bill Moriarity travel the country in their RV managing Habitat construction projects. “We like it because it’s a hand up, not a hand out,” France Moriarity says. Habitat volunteers don’t need construction skills and can sign up to work as little as one day at a time. Groups can volunteer together. Organizations like Rebuilding Together and NeighborWorks America sponsor once yearly volunteer events that help lower-income homeowners repair their homes.

In San Francisco, Gregg Lynn convinced 150 people from his professional network to donate a percentage of their income to EARN. Follow his lead by asking your professional network, trade association, or social group to contribute.

Dona DeZube has been writing about real estate for over two decades. She lives a suburban Baltimore 1970s rancher on a 3-acre lot shared with possums, raccoons, foxes, a herd of deer, and her blue-tick hound.

Chrisha Mitchell, Realtor at 708-966-9282

7 Mortgage Interest Deduction Myths

By: Dona DeZube

Published: February 16, 2011

Think losing the mortgage interest deduction would be no big deal? We bust seven myths to show why the cost is bigger than you think.

Myth #1: The mortgage deduction is just for rich people.
The mortgage interest deduction helps mostly middle- and lower-income families.
65% of families who use it earn less than $100,000 per year.
91% earn less than $200,000 per year (that’s where most economists draw the line between rich and middle-class).
Only 9% earn more than $200,000 per year.
This myth may have arisen because of a related fact: If you buy a house, you’re much more likely to accumulate wealth by the end of your life. Home owners have an average net worth of $200,000, while the average renter’s net worth is $5,000, according to the Federal Reserve’s Survey of Consumer Finances.

Myth #2: I’m not affected by the mortgage deduction because I don’t own a home.

If the mortgage interest deduction goes away, home values would fall by 15%, the NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF REALTORS® estimates. When home values fall, tax revenues follow suit, giving your local government two choices:

Raise property taxes. Not only will home owners pay more in taxes, renters won’t escape unscathed either as landlords raise rents to cover their costs.
Cut services that everyone—renters and owners—enjoys.
Myth #3: Switching to a 12% mortgage interest credit would be a wash for most.

One proposal floating around Congress is to replace the mortgage interest deduction with a 12% nonrefundable mortgage interest tax credit. (Deductions reduce your taxable income; credits reduce your tax liability.) This plan would increase taxes for many home owners.

Example: If you paid $10,000 in mortgage interest, and you’re in the 25% bracket, you’d pay $1,300 in extra taxes.

The $10,000 deduction you have now saves you $2,500 on your taxes (25% x 10,000).
The 12% credit would save you only $1,200 (12% x 10,000) on your taxes.
In this scenario, if the mortgage interest deduction is changed to a 12% credit, you’d lose $1,300 (the current $2,500 savings minus the $1,200 you’ll save under the 12% plan).
Myth #4: Not that many people take the mortgage interest deduction.

There are 75 million American home owners, and 38.5 million of them take the mortgage interest deduction. The average mortgage interest tax deduction is $12,200, and a typical benefit for home owners is $3,050 a year.

The mortgage deduction is a key benefit to first-time home owners and trade-up buyers because you pay the most mortgage interest when you first take out a mortgage. (You won’t pay equal amounts of principal and interest until year 13 or later, depending on your interest rate.)

People with large families also get a lot of bang from mortgage interest deductibility—they buy relatively big houses for their big families.

Myth #5: Getting rid of the deduction won’t affect me or my housing market.

It will mean lower property values for all American home owners, including the one-third who own their homes outright and the 12 million who take the standard deduction.

Even if you don’t have a mortgage, getting rid of the MID will affect how much home you can afford to buy—and how much a buyer will pay for your home.

Myth #6: People will still buy my house without the mortgage interest deduction.

Yes, people will still value home ownership, but it will be harder for them to buy your house. The mortgage interest deduction makes it cheaper to buy a home because it saves real money at tax time.

If you bought a home last year with a $200,000, 30-year, 5% fixed-rate mortgage and you’re in a 25% tax bracket, you’d save about $2,500 from the mortgage interest deduction alone in the first year you own your home. That’s money you can use to pay down other debts, save for your children’s college education, or put away to buy a move-up house.

Myth #7: Solving the U.S. budget problems requires everyone to sacrifice.

Home owners already pay 80% to 90% of the federal income tax collected. If mortgage interest deductibility disappears, you and your fellow home owners could foot 95% of federal income tax.

If you’re at the beginning of your mortgage, losing the mortgage deduction will cost you a bundle:

$26,685—a 15% drop in value for the median home valued at $177,900.
A proportionally smaller gain in overall home equity over your lifetime, because your home now starts from a lower value.
Dona DeZube has been writing about real estate for more than two decades. She lives a suburban Baltimore 1970s rancher on a 3-acre lot shared with possums, raccoons, foxes, a herd of deer, and her blue-tick hound.

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4 Financial Reasons to Buy Now

by THE KCM CREW on APRIL 12, 2011

As Dean Hartman said last week, the purchase of a home is a personal decision. However, we want to give everyone four great financial reasons why you should not wait before taking the plunge into homeownership.

Interest Rates Are Increasing

Interest rates have increased almost 3/4 of a point in the last six months. Most experts expect rates to continue to increase through the year. Interest rates along with price determine the overall cost of a home. Even with prices softening, if interest rates rise, it may be less expensive to buy now rather than wait.

The 30-Year Mortgage May Disappear

There has been much debate regarding government’s role in providing support for homeownership. There are several experts who believe If Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac’s roles are eliminated, or even limited, it may be the end to the 30-year mortgage. This concern is addressed in MSN Real Estate’s Is it curtains for the 30-year mortgage?

QRM Requirements Could Be Much More Stringent

Here are proposed changes to the requirements for a ‘qualified residential mortgage’:

Certain mortgage types would be eliminated
You would need to put a minimum of 20% down
You would need a minimum 690 FICO score
The ratios of income to both the mortgage payment and overall debt would become much more conservative (28% and 36%)
There would be loans available to purchasers who don’t qualify under the new rules. However, they will probably be more expensive to the buyer (both in rate and costs).

Rents Are Expected to Increase

The supply of available rentals is decreasing and the demand is increasing. That will lead to an increase in rental costs throughout the year. The Wall Street Journal this week quoted a report by Reis, Inc:

“Expect vacancies to continue declining, and rents rising through the rest of 2011 at an even faster pace.”

Bottom Line

You may be waiting on the sidelines to see if prices will continue to depreciate before you purchase a home. The mortgage expense is a major piece in the overall financial picture of homeownership. Make sure you consider it when timing your decision.

Contact Chrisha Mitchell, 708-966-9282 to buy|sell|rent|invest

Celebrating Earth Day Begins at Home

By: Courtney Craig

Published: April 22, 2011

Happy Earth Day! There are many ways to green up your life, but many of the most important improvements you can make are right in your own home.

Happy Earth Day! There are many ways to green up your life, but many of the most important improvements you can make are right in your own home. We’ve searched the Internet for offers, contests, and tips for making your home a greener place–not just on Earth Day, but every day.

Recyclebank’s Green Your Home Challenge: Log on to this online challenge, which asks you to complete green actions around your home. The more actions you complete, the more points you earn. You even get bonus points for referring friends to the contest. At the end of the contest, a grand prize winner will win a green home kitchen makeover, complete with brand-new Energy Star-qualified appliances. Smaller prizes will be awarded to 10 first-place winners and 100 second-place winners.

Lowe’s Earth Day giveaway: The home-improvement chain is celebrating Earth Day by giving away 1 million trees on Saturday, April 23. Show up early to get your sapling.

Home builder company giveaway: Today, KB Home street teams, festooned in green, at select locations will be handing out vouchers, which you can redeem for a $10 gift card. Through Sunday, April 24, at KB Home communities, you also can enter a sweepstakes to win a $2,500 cash prize. All Energy Star-qualified homes built by KB Home now come with an energy performance guide that estimates that home’s average monthly energy cost.

Facebook’s A Billion Acts of Green: Pledge to do your part by announcing your green activity of choice through social media. This Facebook page lets you commit to your choice of green acts, such as eliminating toxic cleaning products, changing to CFLs or LEDs for home lighting, and/or getting a home energy audit.

Earth911 offers tips on spring cleaning your garage: Follow these tips for staying organized, motivated, and eco-conscious while cleaning out a notoriously grungy and not-so-green part of your home.

Earth911 also has ideas for reusing items in your garden: Learn how to use a few common household items that could easily end up in a landfill to help your garden flourish.

Finally, The Greenists offer a simple tip for greening up all facets of your life: Use less. See how many opportunities you can find around your home to put this simple idea into practice:

Could you air-dry your laundry instead of using the dryer?
Would you use washable rags instead of paper towels for cleaning?
Have you tried making your own cleaning products?
How will you celebrate Earth Day?

Invest a Tax Refund in Your Home $3,000 Projects

By: John Riha

Published: April 4, 2011

Four great, summary ways to invest your $3,000 tax refund in your house.

Boring? Hardly. Upgrading and maintaining your home preserves its value, giving you a nice return on your investment. Plus, you’ll enjoy the fruits of your labors every day.

With summer on the horizon, here are four outdoorsy ideas for spending your refund.

Add outdoor lighting

Show your house in its best light, even in the evening, with an outdoor lighting scheme. You’ll enhance your home’s architectural features and play up landscaping details, plus you’ll be adding safety and security to your property.

Here’s a quick price check on a professionally installed system:

7 LED outdoor lighting fixtures to illuminate 100 feet of walkway: $2,275.
A transformer to convert household current into low-voltage: $400.
Two motion-detector security lighting fixtures: $300.
Total: $2,975

Install a patio

A backyard patio is an inexpensive way to add some sweet living area to your home.

For a professionally installed brick or concrete paver patio that’s 12 by 16 feet–plenty of space for a table, chairs, and barbecue equipment—you’ll pay about $15 per square foot, or $3,000 total. Expect a payback of 30% to 60% on your investment (plus many hours of great outdoor living).

Other paving materials include limestone, slate, and granite. Concrete is a less expensive option that costs $6 to $12 per square foot, installed.

Upgrade your deck

Make your deck more livable with upgrades that add shade, increase privacy, and provide convenience.

Shade sails provide soft, diffuse shade for areas not covered by trees and building overhangs. They’re made of weatherproof materials that never need maintenance, and come in various shapes. Professional installation of a 12-foot triangular sail costs about $3,000, including the sail and support posts.
Cable railings are thin stainless steel cables stretched between posts. They open up views and add a contemporary feel. Expect to pay $70 per lineal foot for the railings plus pro installation.
Built-in planters add visual texture and help define separate areas of your deck. Integrate their construction with built-in benches to add seating. You’ll spend $150 to $250 per lineal foot for cedar or redwood planters and benches, including materials and installation.
Replace your air conditioning

Hoping the old unit holds on for another year? New central air conditioning units require 30% less electricity and lower energy bills by 30% more than AC units made just a few years ago. You also may qualify for a $300 energy tax credit. Prices for a new energy-efficient central air conditioner start around $3,000.

John Riha has written seven books on home improvement and hundreds of articles on home-related topics. He’s been a residential builder, the editorial director of the Black & Decker Home Improvement Library, and the executive editor of Better Homes and Gardens magazine. His 1972 suburban house has been an ongoing source of maintenance experience.

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